Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world and the second-most populous on the African Continent. Nearly 100% of the country's 68 million people live in Cairo and Alexandria; elsewhere on the banks of the Nile; in the Nile delta, which fans out north of Cairo; and along the Suez Canal.
These regions are among the world's most densely populated, containing an average of over 3,820 persons per square mile (1,540 per sq. km.), as compared to 181 persons per sq. mi. for the country as a whole.
The Egyptians are a fairly homogeneous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Ethnic minorities include a small number of Bedouin Arab nomads in the eastern and western deserts and in the Sinai, as well as some 50,000-100,000 Nubians clustered along the Nile in Upper (southern) Egypt.
Best time for travelling:
For Alexandria, Cairo and the Mediterranean coast year-roundly good time for travelling
For upper egypt the months of Octobers till April
For the oases October till May (winter months very cold).
Health and prophylaxis:
- Hepatitis Type A and hepatitis Type B
A increased infection risk exists throughout the country. Transmission of Hepatitis B can occur through activities that involve contact with blood or blood-derived fluids. Transmission of Hepatitis A can occur through direct person-to-person contact; through exposure to contaminated water, ice, or shellfish harvested from sewage-contaminated water; or from fruits, vegetables, or other foods that are eaten uncooked and that were contaminated during harvesting or subsequent handling
To protect yourself do not share needles for tattoos, body piercing or injections and only drink bottled or boiled water, or carbonated (bubbly) drinks in cans or bottles. Avoid tap water, fountain drinks, and ice cubes. Always use latex condoms. A preventing inoculation is recommendable.
- Bird flu virus
In Egypt the virus was proven also in humans. Most cases of H5N1 influenza in humans are thought to have occurred from direct contact with infected poultry in affected countries. Contact with sick or dead poultry as well as with poultry that have no apparent symptoms should be avoided. Contact with surfaces that may have been contaminated by poultry feces or secretions should also be avoided.
To protect yourself avoid poultry farms, bird markets, and other places where live poultry is raised or kept.
Meals, which were heated up on over 70 degrees, can be eaten heedlessly.
- Infections by contaminated meals or beverages
Hepatitis A, typhoid fever, diarrhea and vomiting or worm-related diseases will be transfered by contaminated meals and beverages.
To protect yourself do not eat food purchased from street vendors or food that is not well cooked to reduce risk of infection. Do not drink beverages with ice (No ice please!). Avoid dairy products, unless you know they have been pasteurized.
There is a small risk in the oasis El Faiyum
Protect yourself from mosquito insect bites by wearing long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and hats when outdoors. Use insect repellents that contain DEET. If no screening or air conditioning is available use a pyrethroid-containing spray in living and sleeping areas during evening and night-time hours and sleep under bed nets, preferably insecticide-treated ones.