Numbers and facts about India


Official name:
Republic of India, Bharat (Hindi)
Area: 3.3 million sq. km. (1.3 million sq. mi.); about one-third the size of the U.S.
Cities: Capital: New Delhi (pop. 11 million).
Other major cities: Mumbai, formerly Bombay (15 million); Calcutta (12 million); Chennai, formerly Madras (6 million); Bangalore (5 million); Hyderabad (5 million); Ahmedabad (3.7 million).
Terrain: Varies from Himalayas to flat river valleys.
Climate: Temperate to subtropical monsoon.
Nationality: Noun and adjective: Indian(s).
Population (1999 est.): one billion; urban 32%.
Annual growth rate: 1.8%.
Density: 311/sq. km.
Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid 2%, others.
Religions: Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5%.
Languages: Hindi, English, and 16 other official languages.
Education: Years compulsory: 9 (to age 14). Literacy: 54%.
Health: Infant mortality rate: 71/1,000. Life expectancy: 63 years.
Work force (est.): 416 million. Agriculture: 63%; industry and commerce: 22%; services and government: 11%; transport and communications: 4%.
Type: Federal republic.
Independence: August 15, 1947.
Constitution: January 26, 1950.
Branches: Executive: president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet).
Legislative: bicameral parliament (Rajya Sabha or Council of States and Lok Sabha or House of the People). Judicial: Supreme Court.
Political parties: Bharatiya Janata Party, Congress (I), Janata Dal (United), Communist Party of India, Communist Party of India-Marxist, and numerous regional and small national parties.
Political subdivisions: 25 states,* 7 union territories.
Suffrage: Universal over 18.
GDP: $390 billion.
Real growth rate (1998-99): 6.8%.
Per capita GDP: $420.
Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, chromite, thorium, limestone, barite, titanium ore, diamonds, crude oil.
Agriculture (25% of GDP): Products: wheat, rice, coarse grains, oilseeds, sugar, cotton, jute, tea.
Industry (29% of GDP): Products: textiles, jute, processed food, steel, machinery, transport equipment, cement, aluminum, fertilizers, mining, petroleum, chemicals, computer software.
Trade: Exports: $34 billion: agricultural products, engineering goods, precious stones, cotton apparel and fabrics, handicrafts, tea.
Imports: $42 billion: petroleum, machinery and transport equipment, edible oils, fertilizer, jewelry, iron and steel.
Major trade partners: U.S., EU, Russia, Japan, Iraq, Iran, central and eastern Europe.


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